Wide Biological Role of Hydroxytyrosol: Possible Therapeutic and Preventive Properties in Cardiovascular Diseases.
Cells. 2020 Aug 21 ;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 21. PMID: 32825589
The growing incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has promoted investigations of natural molecules that could prevent and treat CVD. Among these, hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound of olive oil, is well known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects. Its strong antioxidant properties are due to the scavenging of radicals and the stimulation of synthesis and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, HO-1, NOS, COX-2, GSH), which also limit the lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Lowered inflammation and oxidative stress and an improved lipid profile were also demonstrated in healthy subjects as well as in metabolic syndrome patients after hydroxytyrosol (HT) supplementation. These results might open a new therapeutic scenario through personalized supplementation of HT in CVDs. This review is the first attempt to collect together scientific literature on HT in both in vitro and in vivo models, as well as in human clinical studies, describing its potential biological effects for cardiovascular health.