Wogonin inhibits cell cycle progression by activating the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Phytomedicine. 2020 Jan 18 ;68:153174. Epub 2020 Jan 18. PMID: 31991293
BACKGROUND: Wogonin has been reported to exhibit various biological activities such as anti-inflammation, anti-microbial, and anti-tumor. Previous studies have demonstrated that wogonin could down-regulate Cyclin D1 activity on multiple cancers. However, the related mechanisms have not been fully elucidated so far.
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to explore whether wogonin can suppress hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and the mechanism of wogonin in inhibiting Cyclin D1 expression.
METHODS: Herein, we assessed the anti-tumor activity of wogonin against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by MTT assay, clonogenic assay, cell cycle analysis and orthotopic xenograft mouse models. Western blot, immunofluoscence assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay, docking program, surface plasmon resonance, site-directed mutagenesis assay and immunohistochemical assay were performed for exploring the underlying mechanisms of wogonin-induced growth inhibition in HCC.
RESULTS: Our results showed that non-toxic dosage of wogonin (10, 20 µM) could inhibit cells proliferation and suppress cells cycle progression in MHCC97L and HepG2 cell. Moreover, the findings from the western blot and immunofluoscence assay confirmed the inhibition action of wogonin (10, 20 µM) on Cyclin D1 expression in MHCC97L cells, and wogonin (10, 20 µM) pre-treatment was capable of promoting Cyclin D1 ubiquitination and degradation in MHCC97L cell. In addition, wogonin promoted phosphorylation of Cyclin D1 on threonine-286 site, the mutation of threonine-286 to alanine-286A blocked Cyclin D1 proteolysis induced by wogonin. Wogonin-promoted CyclinD1 phosphorylation and subsequent proteolysis may associate with the activation of GSK3beta in cancer cells. The phosphorylated form of GSK3beta (active form) expression was significantly increased after wogonin (20 µM) exposure. Molecular docking study and Biacore SPR analysis of GSK3beta mutantfurther validated the high-affinity wogonin binding site on GSK3beta. Moreover, in vivo studies further confirmed that phospho-GSK3beta Tyr216 was over-expressed in HCC specimens after wogonin treatment while the amount of Cyclin D1 was significantly decreased.
CONCLUSION: In summary, our data reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which wogonin induces HCC cells cycle arrest and suppresses tumor proliferation.