Premeal Low-Fat Yogurt Consumption Reduces Postprandial Inflammation and Markers of Endotoxin Exposure in Healthy Premenopausal Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial.
J Nutr. 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15. PMID: 29767743
Background: Metabolic endotoxemia is associated with obesity and contributes to postprandial inflammation.
Objective: We aimed to determine if low-fat yogurt consumption prevents postprandial inflammation and dysmetabolism in healthy women by inhibiting biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia.
Methods: Premenopausal women defined as obese and nonobese [body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) 30-40 and 18.5-27, respectively, n = 120] were randomly assigned to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (YN, yogurt nonobese; YO, yogurt obese) or 324 g of soy pudding (CN, control nonobese; CO, control obese) for 9 wk (n = 30/group). The intervention foods each supplied 330 kcal with 3 g fat, 66 g carbohydrate, and 4-6 g protein. At weeks 0 and 9, participants ingested 226 g of yogurt or 216 g of soy pudding before a meal providing 56-60 g fat, 82 g carbohydrate, and 28-30 g protein. Plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), LPS activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6), glucose, triglyceride, andinsulin were measured hourly for 4 h to assess differences in postprandial responses between groups by 2-factor ANOVA.
Results: Premeal yogurt consumption prevented the postprandial decrease in sCD14 net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) by 72% in obese individuals at week 0 (P = 0.0323). YN and YO had ≥40% lower net iAUC of LBP-to-sCD14 ratio and plasma IL-6 concentration than CN and CO, respectively (P < 0.05). CO had postprandial hyperglycemia which was not evident in YO; in contrast YN had 57% less postprandial hypoglycemia than did CN (P-interaction = 0.0013). After 9 wk of yogurt consumption, ΔAUC of LBP-to-sCD14 ratios of YO and YN were less than half of those of the control groups (P = 0.0093).
Conclusions: Yogurt consumption improved postprandial metabolism and biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia in healthy premenopausal women. Premeal yogurt consumption is a feasible strategy to inhibit postprandial dysmetabolism and thus may reduce cardiometabolic risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01686204.