Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Diarrhoeal Activity ofFruit Extract.
Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018 May 20 ;6(5):757-766. Epub 2018 May 15. PMID: 29875842
Ahmed M Mesaik
BACKGROUND: belongs to family Rhamnaceae widely distributed in subtropical and tropical countries. It is used traditionally for several pharmacological purposes including anti-inflammation, antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial, as well as tonic and sometimes as hypnotic (sedative).
AIM: To determine the in vivo antidiarrhoeal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities offruit ethanolic extract.
METHOD: The fruit was macerated and extracted by 95% (v/v) ethanol. The antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated using castor oil andinduced diarrhoea mouse model. The antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity was investigated at graded doses (400-1200 mg/kg). The anti-inflammatory effects were tested using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in female Wistar rats. Rat's treatment groups received tragacanth, 100 mg/kg diclofenac sodium, 800 mg/kg, 1200 mg/kg or 1600 mg/kg of an ethanolic extract of(EEZJ). All treatment groups were fed with the compounds one hour before carrageenan injection at of rat's paw. Also, the EEZJ was further analysed by HPLC-PDA system for identification of the presence of betulinic acid and quercetin.
RESULTS: EEZJ different doses did not show inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea except for the higher (1200 mg/kg) dose. However, the frequency of defecation of stools and watery stool were reduced significantly when compared to control group (P≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.01 respectively), resulted in overall 67% inhibition of diarrhoea. Our anti-inflammatory results demonstrated that EEZJ was able to inhibit the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats to a significant degree (p ≤ 0.05) and the paw volume and thickness of both left and right pawwere affected compared to the negative control group.
CONCLUSION: EEZJ possesses antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity in a dose depending manner and may provide a pharmacological basis for its clinical use in diarrheal diseases. The activity may partially be due to the presence of betulinic acid and quercetin.