Zyflamend induces programmed cell death in prostate cancer cells that lack Cox-2 expression. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Zyflamend, a unique herbal preparation with nonselective COX inhibitory activity, induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells that lack COX-2 expression.
Nutr Cancer. 2005;52(2):202-12. PMID: 16201851
Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors have suppressive effects on several types of cancer cells including prostate cancer. In this study, we considered the potential COX-inhibitory activity of a unique anti-inflammatory herbal preparation (Zyflamend; New Chapter, Inc., Brattleboro, VT) and analyzed its effects on the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. COX inhibitory activity of Zyflamend was determined by a spectrophotometric-based assay using purified ovine COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Effects of Zyflamend on LNCaP cell growth and apoptosis in vitro were assessed by cell counting, Western blot detection of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and measurement of caspase-3 activity in treated and control cell extracts. Western blotting techniques were conducted to determine the effects of this herbal preparation on the expression of the cell signaling proteins, p21, androgen receptor (AR), phospho-protein kinase C (pPKC)(alpha/beta), and phospho (p)Stat3. The phospohorylation status of several signal transduction phosphoproteins was profiled using a high-throughput phosphoprotein screening assay in treated cells and compared to controls. Zyflamend dramatically decreased COX-1 and COX-2 enzymatic activity. Elevated p21 expression coincided with attenuated cell growth following treatment of LNCaP cells with Zyflamend. PARP cleavage fragments were evident, and caspase-3 activity was upregulated over the control indicating the ability of Zyflamend to induce apoptosis of these cells. Androgen receptor expression levels declined by 40%, and decreases were observed in the active forms of Stat3 and PKC(alpha/beta) in Zyflamend-treated LNCaP cells. Zyflamend inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymatic activities, suppressed cell growth, and induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. However, our data suggests that the effects are likely due to COX-independent mechanisms potentially involving enhanced expression of p21 and reduced expression of AR, pStat3, and pPKC(alpha/beta).